Your Ultimate Guide to Know How Lithium Ion Batteries Work
Lithium-ion batteries are extremely popular today. They’re so common because, pound for pound they are indeed the most energetic rechargeable battery available. A lithium-ion battery is an advanced battery technology that uses lithium ions as a key component of its making. So, a question that arises is, how lithium ion batteries work? During a discharge cycle, the lithium atoms in the anode are ionized and then further separated from the electrons.
Pioneering work for understanding how lithium ion batteries work began in the year 1912. However, it was not until the 1970s that the first ever non-rechargeable lithium batteries became available. The attempts to develop rechargeable Li-ion batteries then came to play. Lithium is the lightest metal of all, has the highest electrochemical potential and also provides the highest specific energy per weight. The present-day rechargeable batteries with lithium on the anode have been proven to have extremely high energy density.
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The present-day lithium ion battery is made up of one or more compartments, responsible for generating power called as cells. Each of the cells is essentially made of three components, i.e., an electrolyte, a positive electrode, and a negative electrode. In a lithium ion battery, the power density and the energy density are the most common things. Most commonly, the energy density is measured in (Wh/Kg) and is the amount of energy the Li-ion battery can store with respect to its mass. Power density on the other hand measures in (W/Kg) and is the amount of power in a battery with respect to the mass.
The lithium ions transfer from the anode and pass through the electrolyte till they reach the other electrode, i.e., the cathode. Here, these lithium ions recombine with the electrons and get ‘electrically neutralized’.
- The lithium ions are small in size to be able to move through a separator (micro-permeable) between the cathode and the anode. In part because of the small size of lithium, exactly one-third of the size of hydrogen and helium, the li-ion batteries can have a charge per storageand a high voltage as well, per unit mass and unit volume.
- The Li-ion batteries can utilize a number of different materials as electrodes. The most common combination is that of lithium cobalt oxide and graphite, i.e., the cathode and anode, respectively. Other types of cathode materials include lithium manganese oxide and lithium iron phosphate. When it comes to how lithium ion batteries work, they mostly use ether (an organic compound class) in form of an electrolyte.
- Now, how does a lithium ion battery work when it comes to the recharging aspect? The positively charged lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. They do this by moving across the electrolyte until they reach the positive electrode. Here, these ions are deposited. The electrons on the other hand move from the anode to the cathode.
- Now that it is clear how lithium ion batteries work during recharging, let’s understand how they work when its charging. When a lithium ion battery is charged, an exactly opposite process happens. The lithium ions move back from the cathode to the anode. The electrons, however move from anode to cathode.
There can be a number of ways to understand as to how lithium ion batteries work because of their versatile nature and the number of advantages it comes with given its functionality. As compared to the other high-quality rechargeable battery technology, for example, nickel-metal hydride and nickel cadmium, lithium ion batteries come with a number of advantages, given its smooth functioning. They have a very high energy density and can deliver high amounts of current for energy storage and backup purposes, as in the case of an inverter and a wide range of other benefits.
They are also low-maintenance and do not require scheduled cycling for the purpose of maintaining the battery life. The Li-ion batteries have no minimum effect (a detrimental process, wherein partial charge and discharge cycles lead a battery to remember ‘a lower capacity’.
The lithium ion battery inverters are not like just any other emergency power back up or generator. It provides power instantly and safely runs any electrical equipment it connects to. The li-ion batteries also have a lower rate of self-discharge, and they are also environmentally friendly as they do not contain toxic compounds like cadmium and are also much easier to dispose. We at Luminous, have come up with the all-new lithium ion 1250 inverter with Li-ion battery that makes it efficient, long lasting, safe, and compact, all at the same time. The product performance is controlled and managed by BMS (Intelligent Battery Management System), drastically improving the performance of the product.